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Full text of "Raleigh, the shepherd of the ocean; a pageant-drama"

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GIFT OF 







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THE SHEPHERD OF THE OCEAN 



Whom I asked from what place he came, 
And how he hight, himself he did ycleepe 
"The Shepherd of the Ocean" by name, 
And said he came far from the main-sea deep. 

Spenser's The Faerie Queenc. 




PORTRAIT OP RALEIGH IN "THE HISTORY OP THE WORLD," 1617 
The only portrait, of him. published during his lifetime 




THE SHEPHERD OF THE OCEAN 

A Pageant-Drama 

BY 
FREDERICK HENRY KOCH 

Professor of Dramatic Literature in the University 
of North Carolina 




DESIGNED TO COMMEMORATE THE TERCENTENARY OF 
THE EXECUTION OF SIR WALTER RALEIGH 



With a Foreword by 
Edwin Greenlaw 



PRINTED AT 

&aieigf), JSortfc Carolina 

BY EDWARDS & BROUGHTON PRINTING CO. 
MCMXX 



; 

* 



Copyright* 1920, by 

FREDERICK HENRY KOCH 

All rights reserved, including acting rights 

and motion picture rights 



To 

THE CITIZENS OF THE "CITIE OF RALEGH' 
IN NORTH CAROLINA 

INHERITORS OF THE BRAVE SPIRIT OF 
THE PIONEER COLONIZER 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

WHO WROTE 
JUST BEFORE HIS FALL 

"/ shall yet live to see it an English nation" 



433 i 57 



Contents 

PAGE 

THE RALEIGH TERCENTENARY 9 

FOREWORD 13 

CHARACTERS REPRESENTED 21 

THE PROLOGUE 25 

THE FIRST PART 27 

EPISODE I 27 

INTERLUDE 42 

EPISODE II 43 

THE INTERLUDE 57 

THE SECOND PART 59 

EPISODE I 61 

INTERLUDE 66 

EPISODE II 67 

INTERLUDE 75 

EPISODE III 77 

THE EPILOGUE 87 

THE DIRECTORS OF THE PAGEANT 93 

THE COMMITTEES OF THE PAGEANT 94 

THE PRINCIPAL PLAYERS OF THE PAGEANT . 95 



list of illustrations; 

Cover Design: THE ARMS OF SIR WALTER RALEIGH, WITH 
AUTOGRAPH. 

The arms from the Heralds' College, London. 

The autograph facsimile in letter to Mr. R. Duke, July 26, 1584. 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH Frontispiece 

Portrait of Raleigh in the Third Edition of The History of 
the World, 1617. 

FACING PAGE 

THE BIRTHPLACE OF WALTER RALEIGH 23 

From a photograph. 

QUEEN ELIZABETH 29 

From painting by Zucchero in the National Portrait Gallery. 

INDIAN CHIEFS OF ROANOKE ISLAND 35 

From the John White Pictures. 

THE DEFEAT OF THE SPANISH ARMADA, 1588 .... 41 

From Tapestry Hangings of the House of Lords, engraved by 
J. Pine, 1739. 

THE ARRIVAL OF THE ENGLISH AT ROANOKE ISLAND . . 53 

From the John White Pictures. 

RALEIGH'S CELL IN THE BLOODY TOWER 61 

From a drawing by J. Wykeham Archer, 1851. 

THE SITE OF FORT RALEIGH ON ROANOKE ISLAND . . 81 

From the painting by Jacques Busbee. 



I SHALL yet live to see it an English nation!" 
So wrote Sir Walter Raleigh, with far-seeing vis- 
ion, just before his fall, concerning his "Lost Col- 
ony" of Roanoke and his Citie of Ralegh in America. 

Today the figure of Sir Walter Raleigh appears the 
more imposing in the perspective of the years the 
complete embodiment of the talents of the versatile 
age in which he lived. Courtier, soldier, sea-captain, 
statesman, explorer, scientist, historian, poet he was, 
perhaps, the most representative man % of his time. 
But chiefly he was the pioneer colonizer of the New 
World of America. 

It is especially fitting that Raleigh, The Shepherd 
of the Ocean, be produced at this particular time, as 
the contribution of the State of North Carolina to the 
celebrations being held conjointly both in England 
and in the United States in 1920-21, to commemorate 
the correlated occurrences which mark the beginnings 
and the development of our free English institutions. 
In this international celebration the landing on Roan- 
oke Island in July, 1584, of the colonists of Sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh the first English settlers in America 
holds a unique place. It is the pioneer English set- 
tlement in America, a heritage which may well be 
cherished along with the better known later settlements 
at Jamestown and at Plymouth Rock. 

[91 



10 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

Raleigh, The Shepherd of the Ocean, is designed, 
not merely to present some of the shining incidents in 
the life of the man, but also to suggest something of 
the larger significance of his contribution. Sir Walter 
Raleigh is here conceived as representing the struggle 
of the English people for freedom from tyrant rule, 
as blazing the way for those who came after him to 
inherit the fruition of his vision of a brave New 
World the proved reality of his dream of a new 
"English nation" in America. 

In writing this play of Raleigh, The Shepherd of 
the Ocean, I have enriched the text, wherever it was 
practicable, with the vivid phrases of Raleigh him- 
self adapting various passages from his principal 
prose-writings, and including in the final scene his 
beautiful and haunting verses, Even such is time, etc., 
found in his Bible in the gatehouse at Westminster, 
and said to have been written by him the night before 
his execution. 

This Raleigh pageant-drama was devised and writ- 
ten originally for the commemoration of the Tercen- 
tenary of the execution of Sir Walter Raleigh on 
October 29, 1918, as planned by the State Literary 
and Historical Association of North Carolina. But 
the original plan was thwarted by the epidemic of in- 
fluenza, and now it is our purpose to produce it on the 
evenings of October 19th, 20th and 21st in a spacious 
Theatre of Nature in the suburbs of the City of 
Raleigh. 



The Raleigh Tercentenary 11 

In the preparation of the text of the play I am 
deeply indebted to two of my former co-workers in 
community drama: to Dr. Orin Grant Libby, Profes- 
sor of History in the University of North Dakota, for 
necessary historical data and for his inspiration in 
interpreting them; and to Margaret Plank Ganssle, 
one of the group of writers of our first Dakota com- 
munal drama, A Pageant of the North-West, in 1914, 
for her important collaboration in the lyrics. I beg, 
also, to acknowledge my indebtedness for the song, 
God Save Britannia's Queen, to the Shakespeare Ter- 
centenary Masque, Shakespeare, The Playmaker, 
written likewise in collaboration under my direction 
by a group of twenty members of The Dakota Play- 
makers in 1916, and published originally in the 
Quarterly Journal of the University of North Dakota. 

I desire to express my appreciation of the admira- 
ble civic spirit of those who have made possible the 
present production. Without the whole-hearted co- 
operation of the various organizations of the city of 
Raleigh, the original design of Mr. R. D. W. Connor, 
Secretary of the State Literary and Historical Asso- 
ciation of North Carolina, and of my esteemed col- 
league in the University of North Carolina, Dr. Ed- 
win Greenlaw, could not have become a reality. 

FREDERICK H. KOCH. 

CHAPEL HILL, NORTH CAROLINA, 
AUGUST 8, 1920. 



Jforetoorfc 

TO the school-boy, and often to those who think 
only now and then of the more serious side of 
their youthful training, the Founders of America seem 
a sober people who braved the terrors of the sea and 
of the wilderness in order that they might worship God 
according to the dictates of their own conscience. If 
we seek an imaginative background for visualizing 
these venerable people, we find it in the poem by Mrs. 
Hemans about the stern and rock-bound coast; in the 
first Thanksgiving of Puritan men and women, mak- 
ing their way through the snow to the meeting-house 
and protected against the Devil by the Holy Book 
and against the Indians by their muskets. The som- 
bre tales of Hawthorne deepen the picture "The 
Minister's Black Veil," "The Gentle Boy," and 
"Merrymount." To these we add our slender remem- 
brances of early history the expulsion of Roger 
Williams, the witchcraft delusion, Jonathan Edwards 
preaching his fiery sermon on "Sinners in the Hands 
of an Angry God," and finish the chapter with the 
scene of the embattled farmers at Concord at the out- 
break of the Revolution. It is true that a few stories 
of colonial New York and Pennsylvania linger in our 
memories long after school days are over, and that 
even in middle age we sometimes try to recapture the 
delicious romantic thrill once felt in the story of 

113] 



14 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

Pocahontas and Captain John Smith. But we are apt 
to feel that these are excursions into the land of 
romance and that what Whitman calls the real real is 
to be found chiefly in the stern New England life with 
its pioneer hardships, its sermons three hours long, 
its long prayers, and the New England Primer. 

Now there is much that is true and commendable 
in this attitude. But it is not the whole truth. The 
foundations of America are not to be found solely in 
the England of Cromwell, but also in the England of 
Elizabeth. So long as the New England tradition 
dominated American literature, American life, and to 
a certain extent American theories of government, 
it was only natural that schoolboys and girls in other 
parts of the country as well as in the neighborhood of 
Boston and New York should be brought up with such 
an imaginative background. The New England idea 
contributed the town meeting, freedom of thought 
and discussion, a lofty religious and ethical tradition. 
But it also contributed, from the nature of the events 
of our history from the landing of the Mayflower to 
the Revolution, certain Hebraic conceptions of na- 
tionality an abiding consciousness of sin, a con- 
sciousness also of being a peculiar people, set apart 
from all others under the special charge of God, 
while from this apartness and from the necessities of 
the long struggle there sprang a hatred of England 
that has lasted for generations. 



Foreword 15 

The New England tradition, fine as it is, and deeply 
interwoven in the strands of our national life, is after 
all but one strand. The America of the last half 
century is far nearer the earlier English tradition 
than to the tradition of Cromwell's time. It is in the 
sense of adventure in modern life, in the romance of 
the conquest of far-flung prairies and of mountains 
made to yield their treasure, in the building of giant 
industries, in the color brought by emigrants from 
every corner of the Old World, in the irrepressible 
confidence of youth finding it an easy leap to pluck 
honor from the pale-faced moon, that we find our 
thought of America today. And the first-beginnings 
of this multifarious life we find in the adventure, the 
romance, the daring accomplishment, the color, and 
the youth of Elizabethan England. Not in Cotton 
Mather's vast learning or Jonathan Edwards's sermons 
or in Endicott's repression of heresy or the evolution 
of an ideal of religious and civil liberty do we come 
upon the sources of that which now seems most truly 
American; but in Shakespeare's England, and in the 
England of Drake and Gilbert and Walter Raleigh. 
To re-create in our imagination that England, to see 
that the Puritan tradition is but a part of a complex 
and fascinating whole, that it is from this whole that 
the America of today has sprung this is both sound 
history and sound patriotism. 

The Raleigh Tercentenary Masque which Professor 



16 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

Koch has written will aid in this imaginative re-crea- 
tion of our past. It gives little pictures of the back- 
ground of English life from which sprang the whole 
impulse to create a new English nation across the 
seas. As we read, or as we look upon the players 
who revive this old life for us, the mist of the years 
is lifted and we are translated to the scenes in which 
Sidney and Raleigh and Drake played their parts 
upon the world's great stage, with the crowd of town 
and country folk eager to show respect to a beloved 
sovereign and to hear tidings brought from mysteri- 
ous stretches of ocean; among them, too, the keen 
observer of all this life who wove so much of its 
spirit into the great dramas which are our richest 
heritage. There are some liberties in chronology and 
fact, yet the picture as a whole has that deeper truth 
which it is the object of the literature of the imagi- 
nation to convert into reality. This applies not only 
to the host of minor characters with which Mr. Koch 
has peopled his stage, or to the portraits of the great 
dramatist and his fellows, but in such incidents, for 
example, as the one in which we see our hero, under 
the spell of a mighty enchantment, shed his years like 
a garment and stand forth clad in the beauty and 
strength of his youth. The symbol is profoundly 
true in its revelation of Raleigh's character; in its 
expression of the power of his personality over the 
imagination of England, to whom he indeed seemed 



Foreword 17 

one whom age could not wither; and in its revelation 
of the national spirit itself. 

For a third of a century Walter Raleigh held near- 
est his heart the idea of an English nation in America. 
He put his private fortune into attempts to realize this 
plan. He saw in it the only way to countervail the 
sinister power of Spain. When he was at liberty he 
organized colonies or went himself over the trackless 
wastes of ocean. Like Chaucer's shipman, he had 
been shaken in many a tempest. When he was in 
prison, he wrote of the great idea, in essays, state 
papers, and stories of travel. His language has in it 
the tang of the salt-water, the vision of vast uncharted 
seas. He sought not merely by argument but by 
appeal to the imagination of all the English people to 
inflame them with enthusiasm for this great new 
world. His field was as boundless as that of Bacon. 
The one had taken all knowledge to be his province 
and sought to inspire men to bring nature under 
subjection. The other took the new world and all 
the seas that laved its shores to be his province, and 
sought to inspire men to carry the high traditions 
of England to far-off lands. It was for civilization, 
not for conquest. In the twelve years of his prison 
life, he helped to convert the jail into England's best 
university, a university far more nearly related to the 
destinies of his people than Oxford and Cambridge. 
Libraries, students and inquirers, high talk of matters 



18 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

charged with human destiny, were found in the Tower 
where prisoners like Raleigh, Northumberland, and 
others spent year after year. Of kings such as the 
blinded despot who ruled England Raleigh left a 
record in his "History of the World," written in 
prison, showing forth a mighty masque of those whom 
he called "great conquerors, and other troublers of the 
world," all of them brought in the end to the contempt 
and failure that they deserved. In his laboratory he 
conducted experiments for the advancement of scien- 
tific knowledge. For twelve years legally dead, his 
property taken from him, his faithful wife forbidden, 
after a time, to visit him, this wonderful man never 
ceased to dream of the Grail which was as much an 
object of desire to him as to any knight of Arthur's 
court. 

All this Professor Koch has finely and truthfully 
expressed in his Masque. In the symbol of Orinoco 
we have a conception not only marked by poetic and 
dramatic imagination, but one true at the same time 
to the spirit of allegory so constantly met in Eliza- 
bethan England and to the facts of Raleigh's life. 
The Masque here presented is not merely an example 
of antiquarian zeal. It is not merely a series of scenes 
from the life and time of this great ancestor of ours. 
It is an interpretation of the vision out of which the 
English nation in America was to come. It would be 
pleasant, more satisfactory perhaps to our desire for 



Foreword 19 

concreteness and order, if we could look upon Ra- 
leigh as the actual founder of the city in the New 
World that today bears his name, could think of 
him as an actual pioneer, like Bradford or John 
Smith. But the empire of the spirit of man tran- 
scends the physical realm of fact. The English na- 
tion that Raleigh saw in vision in his lonely cell or 
in the watches of the night when he kept vigil on the 
little vessel that plowed the vast Atlantic, is greater 
and far more powerful than it could ever have en- 
tered his mind to conceive. It is enough for us that 
he saw the first step that was to be taken in a mighty 
evolution, saw it when every consideration of worldly 
prudence bade him deny it, held to it in imprison- 
ment, in disgrace and poverty, and died for it at last. 
This fundamental truth is ready for us as we look 
upon this Masque of the Shepherd of the Ocean. On 
the one hand the narrow and selfish policy of the king 
and his ministers; the certainty to all who read the 
records that no one of his judges and accusers caught 
the faintest understanding of his vision of England's 
destiny; the fear of the untried path and the expedi- 
ency of narrow politicians. On the other the shining 
vision, the never-failing courage, the sense of a des- 
tiny against which king and party, apparently all 
powerful, yet strive in vain. On earth his reward 
was prison, poverty, death on the scaffold. Yet that 
scaffold swayed the future. He was not alone. 



20 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

Others had caught the same vision, and with him fired 
the imaginations of men. 

From these beginnings, behold how mighty a nation 
has sprung! And as we look from our city of Raleigh 
in North America upon this fragmentary interpreta- 
tion of the beginnings of one of earth's greatest evo- 
lutions, we may gain, once more, the truth that out 
of f aithfulness to an ideal against whatever odds, out 
of willingness to think new thoughts and even to ven- 
ture, if need be, upon seas yet uncharted, a new 
victory may be won, provided only that the end of all 
our striving be the glory of God and the relief of 
man's estate. Democracy, born in experiment, is 
itself a continued experiment. The America of 1920 
may have its vision as well as the England of Eliza- 
beth and James. And we who are the America of 
today may sit at the feet of the Stuart king or, with 
Raleigh, press on to new worlds. 

EDWIN GREENLAW. 



Character* &epregenteb 

THE PROLOGUE, THE INTERLUDES, AND 
THE EPILOGUE 

THE HERALDS 

THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH 

THE CHORUS OF SHEPHERDS 

THE FIRST PART: RALEIGH, THE SHEPHERD OF 
THE OCEAN 

Episode 1: The Spanish Armada, 1588 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

QUEEN ELIZABETH 

THE EARL OF ESSEX 

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE 

HENRY HOWARD, Earl of Northampton 

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE 

EDMUND SPENSER 

JOHN WHITE, Governor of Virginia 

MANTEO AND WANCHESE, natives from Virginia 

THE MASTER OF CEREMONIES 

Sir Philip Sidney, Lord Burleigh, Sir Christopher Hatton, 
Sir John Hawkins, Sir Martin Frobisher, The Usher of 
the Black Rod, Gentlemen Pensioners, Elizabeth Throg- 
morton and other Ladies-in- Waiting, Pages, and a Jester. 

Merchants and tradesmen of London, their wives and sweet- 
hearts and children; the Host of "The Boar's Head"; 
soldiers and mariners of England. 

Episode II: Raleigh's Vision of the New World, 1596 
SIR WALTER RALEIGH 
THE EARL OF ESSEX 
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE 
THE LORD MAYOR OF LONDON 
SEA-CAPTAINS OF THE VICTORY OF CADIZ: Sir George Carew, 

Sir Francis Vere, Sir Edward Wingfield, Captain Bagnoll, 

Captain Medick; soldiers and mariners. 

[21] 



22 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

POETS AND PLAYMAKERS: Ben Jonson, Francis Beaumont, 
John Fletcher, Edmund Spenser, Francis Bacon. 

THE FESTIVAL GROUP: Townspeople and country-folk, in- 
cluding morris dancers, peddlers, pastry-cooks, fruit 
venders, a Dragon, a Hobbyhorse, a Bedlam beggar, a 
gypsy dancer, a puppet-master, an alchemist, a tapster, 
woodsmen, milkmaids, a chimney-sweep, a juggler, a 
Puritan, a Jack-in-the-Green, Robin Hood, Will Stukely, 
Friar Tuck, and Maid Marian. 

THE SECOND PART: THE MARTYRDOM OF RALEIGH 
Episode I: The Lure of the Orinoco, 1617 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

AN OLD SERVANT 

VENEZUELA, Queen of the Carribean 

THE SPIRIT OF THE ORINOCO, a water-sprite 

PANTOMIME FIGURES: Raleigh, the courtier, and Queen Eliza- 
beth; Elizabeth Throgmorton; Governor White of Vir- 
ginia; Manteo and Wanchese; Lady Raleigh and her 
children; a group of sea-captains of Cadiz. 

Episode II: Raleigh's Last Venture, 1617 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

WALTER RALEIGH, his oldest son 

A HERALD 

KING JAMES THE FIRST 

GEORGE VILLJERS, Duke of Buckingham 

THE COMPANY OF RALEIGH, consisting of sixty gentlemen of 

rank, sea-captains, soldiers, and mariners. 
A GROUP OF COURTIERS, in attendance on the King 
THE SPIRIT OF THE ORINOCO, a water-sprite 

Episode III: The Sacrifice, October 29, 1618 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

THE DEAN OF WESTMINSTER 

A SPY OF THE GOVERNMENT 

SEVERAL GENTLEMEN, friends of Raleigh 

THE BELLMAN 




THE BIRTHPLACE OF SIR WALTER RALEL 
Hayes Barton, near Budleigh-Salterton, Devon 



THE PROLOGUE 



123] 



The defeat of the Invincible Armada was the opening 
event in the history of the United States. It was the event 
that made all the rest possible. Without it the attempts at 
Jamestown and Plymouth could hardly have had more suc- 
cess than the attempt at Roanoke Island. An infant colony 
is like an army at the end of a long line of communication; 
it perishes if the line is cut. Before England could plant 
thriving states in America she must control the ocean routes. 
The far-sighted Raleigh understood the conditions of the 
problem. When he smote the Spaniards at Cadiz he knew 
it was a blow struck for America. He felt the full signifi- 
cance of the defeat of the Armada, and in spite of all his 
disappointments in Virginia, he never lost heart. [Fiske: 
Old Virginia and Her Neighbors, Vol. I, p. 39.] 



124] 



&i)e prologue 

[The Pageant is announced by three trumpet calls from 
the HERALDS.] 

[Enter THE CHORUS OF SHEPHERDS, representing the chil- 
dren of Raleigh. Their kirtles are white., the white of 
promise. Over these rude sheep skins are worn.] 

Youth, Youth, Spirit of Youth, 
The world yearns for thee 
As the blind yearn to see; 
Youth, Youth, speak of the Truth. 

[THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH enters in response to the chant of 
the CHORUS. In his hand he bears a shepherd's crook. 
His step is lithe and free. He speaks with radiant 
tones the spirit of indomitable life.] 

THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH 

Children of Youth, believers in Youth, 

Lovers of Youth's heart of flame, 

Behold from out the Gates of Yesterday . 

There comes the gallant figure of a knight, 

Whose bravery and fame once stirred the world, 

Sir Walter Raleigh knight indeed was he 

A knight of high adventure, courage sure; 

A knight, who, to the end of time, shall be 

A leader in the hazardous advance 

Of dauntless Youth, forever blazing trails 

That lead to spacious lands of higher hope. 

Old England's son was he, and proud to boast 

That England's air had vivified his dust. 

He interspersed the sea with channels wide, 

Through which, as from a mother's teeming breast, 

[25J 



26 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

We gained our nurture straight from English source, 

Our love of justice, democratic rule. 

And we, the children of Old England, now, 

Today, commemorate with English kin 

The execution of our gallant Raleigh, 

Who, noble-hearted to his tragic ending, 

Alone on God's highway fared bravely forth. 

We, conscious of the debt which children owe 

Unto the parent who has suckled them, 

Join now our hands today across the sea 

With English brothers over all the seas 

Making this anniversary to serve 

A two-fold purpose, praise to Walter Raleigh, 

And with fair England, union, brotherhood. 

THE CHORUS OF SHEPHERDS 

Youth, Youth, Spirit of Youth, 
The world yearns for thee 
As the blind yearn to see; 
Youth, Youth, speak of the Truth. 



THE FIRST PART 
RALEIGH, THE SHEPHERD OF THE OCEAN 



127] 



Thus on the sand banks that guard the eastern shores of 
North Carolina the English race laid its first firm grasp on 
the North American continent. How unconscious were those 
obscure English sailors that they were enacting one of the 
greatest scenes in the world's history! Three hundred years 
have gone yet even we, after all the tremendous results that 
have followed in their train, cannot yet fully appreciate the 
vast significance of that simple ceremony. For then and 
there, on the North Carolina coast, Englishmen first set foot 
on American soil with a view to permanent possession, and 
that event, rather than the defeat of the Invincible Armada, 
"was the opening event in the history of the United States." 
Connor: The Beginnings of English America, p. 11. 




QUEEN ELIZABETH 
From the painting by Zucchcro in the National Portrait Gallery 



^>panis{) glrmaba, 1588 

TIME: The eve of the "Invincible Armada," in the 
summer of 1588. 

SCENE: Harrow Field on the Thames River in the 
suburbs of London. The front of the Boar's Head 
Inn is visible at the left. Preparations have been 
made for the review of the troops by Queen Elizabeth 
as a part of the comprehensive war-plan for the de- 
fense of the realm, made necessary by the threatened 
invasion of England by the Spanish Armada of 
Philip II. At the right on a dais, erected for the occa- 
sion, is a high gilded throne bearing the arms of 
England. It is appropriately festooned with many- 
colored flowers. 

[The scene opens with a happy concourse of representa- 
tive townsfolk flocking in merchants and tradesmen 
of London, with their wives and sweethearts, and a host 
of trooping children all in holiday dress. There is 
also a group of sailor lads, a company of young girls, 
their arms filled with garlands of field flowers, which 
they are busily adding to the decorations of the scene, 
and a ubiquitous JESTER with his madcap quirks. All 
have been rehearsing the songs and dances, prepared in 
honor of the good QUEEN BESS for this occasion the 
review by THE QUEEN, of the seamen and soldiers of 
the realm, in the final preparations for the impending 
grapple with the navy of Spain.] 

[THE MASTER OF CEREMONIES now marshals the people 
hurriedly to their appointed places for the rehearsal of 
the song, God Save Britannia's Queen, which they have 
prepared especially for this occasion. THE JESTER 
darts about interrupting the arrangements with his 
pranks, leaving confusion in his wake.] 

[29] 



30 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

THE MASTER OF CEREMONIES 

[At the conclusion of the song] And now let us try 
the dances. 

[In a twinkling a wild country dance is in full swing. It 
is interrupted almost immediately, however, by a salvo 
of trumpets announcing the arrival of THE QUEEN. The 
dancers cease instantly, transfixed with expectancy. 
Then, headed by THE MASTER OF CEREMONIES, they 
rush off to meet THE QUEEN, and presently return ush- 
ering her to the great throne, cheering with unrestrained 
enthusiasm. Two ladies-in-waiting, four pages, THE 
EARL OF ESSEX and SIR WALTER RALEIGH accompany 
QUEEN ELIZABETH.] 

[ QUEEN ELIZABETH 5 in her fifty- fourth year at this time. 
She is of medium stature, richly dressed, and of com- 
manding presence. Her face is long, fair in complex- 
ion, and, although somewhat wrinkled, the ravages of 
time are hidden as well as paint and powder can 
conceal them. Her small eyes are keen but kindly, 
her nose slightly hooked, her lips thin. She wears a 
light auburn wig, dyed to simulate the brilliant color 
of her own hair in her youth. THE EARL OF ESSEX, 
QUEEN ELIZABETH'S favorite, is a remarkably handsome 
man, tall of stature, and dignified in bearing.] 

[Sm WALTER RALEIGH 1 is tall and well proportioned, 
with a high forehead, rich, dark hair and beard, a fine 
face radiant with life.] 

[There is also SIR FRANCIS DRAKE, HENRY HOWARD, EARL 
OF NORTHAMPTON, the noble and chivalrous SIR PHILIP 
SIDNEY, the sage LORD BURLEIGH, the gallant SIR CHRIS- 

1 Raleigh's name is spelt in many ways. Stebbing cites seventy- 
four forms known to have been current. Raleigh himself, down to 
1583, generally wrote Rauley; he also wrote Rawleyghe, Rauleigh, 
Raleghe, and Ralegh. "The spelling Raleigh, which posterity has 
preferred, happens to be one he is not known to have ever employed/' 
Stebbing: Sir Walter Ralegh, pp. 30-3i: 



The Spanish Armada, 1588 31 

TOPHER HATTON, accompanied by SIR JOHN HAWKINS, 
SIR MARTIN FROBISHER, the USHER OF THE BLACK ROD, 
and several gentlemen pensioners.} 

[THE EARL OF ESSEX and SIR WALTER RALEIGH very 
ceremoniously assist THE QUEEN to the throne, the 
pages carrying a silken canopy over her, and the two 
ladies-in-waiting lifting her train. The crowd cheers 
in wild enthusiasm. With no little difficulty THE MAS- 
TER OF CEREMONIES succeeds in silencing the uproar.] 

THE MASTER OF CEREMONIES 

[Pompously] To your places, all of you! Make 
haste! 

With your Majesty's gracious permission [with a 
deep bow] we will sing a song prepared especially 
for your Highness, and for this momentous time. 

[QuEEN ELIZABETH, seating herself, smiles a gracious 
assent, and the song is sung lustily by all the people.] 

God save Britannia's Queen! 

God save her Majesty! 

Bless e'en the earth beneath her feet; 

Bless this her isle, her royal seat; 

Let all who hear her name repeat, 

God save her Majesty! 

God save Britannia's Queen! 

God save her Majesty! 

This throned isle, this home of kings, 

This land where laughter ever rings, 

Where every echo loudly sings, 

God save her Majesty! 



32 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

God save Britannia's Queen! 
God save her Majesty! 
Let every loyal British son, 
Support the right 'till life is done. 
"Dieu et mon droit" the victory won; 
God save her Majesty! 

[At the conclusion of the song, QUEEN ELIZABETH smiles 
with gracious approval.] 

QUEEN ELIZABETH 
I thank you, my good people. 

[Twenty of the townspeople, with their wives, and several 
of the sailors, advance and perform a country dance. 

[The dance is interrupted suddenly by a trumpet call. 
A page rushes in and, dropping upon one knee before 
THE QUEEN, offers her a letter. She reads it in haste, 
then rises. 

[While all are intent upon THE QUEEN'S actions, 
RALEIGH, forgetting his duty, is paying amorous court 
to one of THE QUEEN'S maids-in-waiting, the beautiful 
golden-haired ELIZABETH THROGMORTON, whom he af- 
terwards married. 2 THE QUEEN, noticing this, rebukes 
RALEIGH sharply.] 

QUEEN ELIZABETH 

[With evident temper] In this hour of England's 
peril, mayhap your Queen may claim your service, 
Master Raleigh. 

2 The courtship of Elizabeth Throgmorton by Walter Raleigh is 
here antedated by several years, but the incident is thoroughly charac- 
teristic. The Queen's temper at this time was extremely exacting 
and uncertain. By this action he brought upon himself the loss of 
royal favor and imprisonment in the Tower. 



The Spanish Armada, 1588 33 

[RALEIGH starts, hastens to THE QUEEN'S side, and kneel- 
ing awaits her command.] 

Your arm, my Lord of Essex. 

[RALEIGH thus rebuked, retires for fear of bringing upon 
himself further royal wrath, and QUEEN ELIZABETH 
turns to address the people.] 

QUEEN ELIZABETH 

My good people all, I am summoned to a council of 
grave import, and must away at once. I regret that I 
must leave your merry-makings. 

By your leave, my Lord of Essex. 

[She hurries out with the EARL OF ESSEX, LORD HOWARD 
and her attendants, RALEIGH following in the rear. 

[When the surprise over the sudden summons of THE 
QUEEN has subsided, the people turn again to their 
games, and the morris dancers begin their play.] 

[SiR FRANCIS DRAKE and the other sea-captains returning, 
seat themselves at the tables before the Boar's Head 
tavern and call loudly for ale.] 

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE 

The review of troops is delayed by this sudden sum- 
mons of the Queen to the council. Gallants, let us 
drink while we await her here. What ho ! mine host, 
ale! ale! 

[Now enters a group of poets and playmakers BEN JON- 
SON, EDMUND SPENSER, FRANCIS BEAUMONT and JOHN 
FLETCHER, and WILL SHAKESPEARE, now twenty-four 
years of age and but three years resident in London. 
With them is the brilliant young scholar, FRANCIS 
BACON.] 



34 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE 

Well met, my hearties, rare old Ben and Master 
Spenser, and all of you. And how fares our young 
player, Shakespeare? I hear you are devising now a 
comedy, quaint and fanciful. Beaumont, Fletcher, 
and our youthful philosopher, Francis Bacon you 
are right welcome here. Sit and drink a round with us. 

And Master Raleigh has come back to join us, and 
with him his two rare monsters from Virginia. 

[RALEIGH has entered with a group of gaudily decorated 
Indians, decked with elaborate trappings, and conspicu- 
ous head-dresses, sent him from his colony of Virginia. 
The red men stand in silent dignity, while the company, 
especially young SHAKESPEARE, gazes upon them with 
staring curiosity.] 

[SHAKESPEARE curiously observes the red men. He is 
evidently much interested in them. The Indians seat 
themselves toward the front of the scene and fill their 
long pipes with tobacco. 3 ] 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 
Mine host, a light for their pipes. 

[THE HOST goes out and returns with a lighted torch 
which he holds out awkwardly. The Indians then go 
through the ceremonial of the pipe, one of them picking 
up a splinter of wood from the ground with which to 
light the tobacco. Then rising, both Indians perform 
the ceremony of turning the lighted pipes to the four 
quarters of the sky, intently watched by all the com- 

3 Raleigh caused tobacco (called by the Indians Yppowoc) to be 
introduced into England from his American colony, about this time. 
He had a silver pipe, modelled after the Indian stone pipes, in which 
he was exceedingly fond of smoking the Indian Yppowoc. 



The Spanish Armada, 1588 35 

pony. Then they calmly seat themselves and smoke in 
silence. THE HOST beats out the torch on the ground.] 

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE 

[Banteringly] Sir Walter, will you not smoke with 
your friends, the aborigines? F faith, I'll see to it 
that your servant does not drench you with ale this 
time. 

[All laugh loudly.] 

SHAKESPEARE 

Shall posterity credit you with having introduced 
such monsters and such savage weeds as this tobacco? 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

Nay, Master Will, enough now of your chiding. 
Not monsters these, but "lustie men," as Barlow 
called them, natives of America and princes of their 
own people. Wanchese and Manteo they are called. 
Though "savage in their behavior," they are "as man- 
nerly and civil as any in Europe." Our colonists 
"were entertained by them with all love and kind- 
ness and with as much bountie (after their manner) 
as they could possibly devise." They brought our 
people for friendly gifts "divers kindes of fruits, 
Melons, Walnuts, Cucumbers, Gourdes, Pease, and 
divers rootes, and f ruites very excellent good, and of 
their Countrey corne, which is very white, faire and 
well tasted." 4 

4 "We brought home also two of the Savages, being lustie men, 
whose names were Wanchese and Manteo." Barlow's report of the 
first expedition and the discovery of Virginia, 1584, printed in Hack- 
luyt's Voyages. 



36 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

SHAKESPEARE 
And will they long remain in England? 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

No, Master Will, they will return presently to their 
own country with our worthy Governor of Virginia. 

SHAKESPEARE 

But does John White return so soon to your "Citie 
of Ralegh in Virginia?" 5 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

Aye, that he does; our kinsmen there are now in 
sore distress. Their stores are gone and winter comes 
anon. Our brave Governor must hasten back immedi- 
ately with supplies, lest they perish in that stark 
wilderness of Hatteras. 

SHAKESPEARE 

And is their "isle of Roanoke" in winter then but 
vasty wilderness? 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

In winter, aye, but in the goodly spring it is re- 
ported a veritable paradise of Nature, "Soile the most 

5 "In the yeere of our Lord 1587, Sir Walter Raleigh intending to 
persevere in planting of his Countrey of Virginia, prepared a new 
Colonie of one hundred and fifty men to be sent thither, under the 
charge of John White, whom hee appointed Governour, and also ap- 
pointed unto him twelve Assistants, unto whom he gave a Charter, 
and incorporated them by the name of Governour and Assistants of 
the Citie of Ralegh in Virginia." Hackluyt's Voyages. 



The Spanish Armada, 1588 37 

plentiful sweet, fruitfull and wholesome of all the 
world, above fourteene several sweet smell- 
ing timber trees, the highest and reddest 

Cedars of the world." The shores are sandy, "but so 
full of grapes as the very beating and surge of the Sea 

overflowed them," and "in such plenty both 

on the sand and on the greene soile on the hills" that 
"the like abundance" cannot be found "in all the 
world." 6 

Here comes our gallant Governor even now, to take 
his leave. 

[GOVERNOR JOHN WHITE of Virginia enters in haste.] 

GOVERNOR WHITE 

Farewell, good Master Walter. My sails are set, 
and I must hasten forth again to our brave colonists 
across the seas, to bring them news of home, and 
goodly stores of food against the lonely winter there. 

I yearn to touch again the shores of Hatteras, to see 
again my fair child Eleanor, and clasp her sweet 
young babe, Virginia Dare! Virginia Dare! well 
christened so the first-born of our English pioneers 
in new America! 7 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

God speed thee on thy way, good Governor, and 
bring thee safely back to Roanoke, to our brave kins- 

6 Barlow's report in Hackluyt's Voyages. 

7 Ananias Dare, one of Governor White's assistants, was his son-in- 
law. On August 18, 1587, Eleanor, wife of Ananias Dare, gave birth 
to a daughter who was christened on the following Sunday, Virginia, 
because she was "the first Christian born in Virginia." The State of 
North Carolina has commemorated the event by naming the county 
which embraces the birthplace, Dare County. 



38 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

men there and to the fair Virginia! Would I could 
with you to Virginia, but England needs me here at 
home in her defense. 

[GOVERNOR WHITE takes his leave.} 

[A cannon-shot is heard. RALEIGH springs to his feet.] 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

Tis the signal gun! But, gentles all, we will make 
short work of this "Invincible Armada." We will 
speedily sweep clean the seas of all these tyrant foes 
and clear a path to the New World o'er which, years 
hence, ships shall freely pass bearing their precious 
freight of English men and maids and all their house- 
hold gear, to rear their homes and build their hearth- 
fires in that wide land, Virginia. There shall arise in 
coming years goodly states, fair cities; and a new and 
gallant folk our kin and brothers shall in the years 
to come clasp hands with us in Britain here, in worthy 
emprise and in desperate venture 'gainst grim-faced 
tyranny. 

SPENSER 

[Leaping up and lifting high his bumper of ale.] 

Bravo, Master Walter! Here I hail and name thee 
"The Shepherd of the Ocean." 8 



8 Whom I asked from what place he came, 
And how he hight, himself he did ycleepe 
The Shepherd of the Ocean by name, 
And said he came far from the main-sea deep. 

Spenser's The Faerie Queene. 



The Spanish Armada, 1588 39 

ALL 

[Rising, lift their bumpers and, drinking, shout.] 

The Shepherd of the Ocean! The Shepherd of the 
Ocean ! 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

Good comrades all, my friend, Sir Edmund, has 
overpraised too much, as is his wont when warmth of 
comradeship his muse inspires. We are the true 
knights-errant of the seas, and when we enter the lists 
with our good ocean steeds, 'gainst Philip's host of 
ships in wide array, though mountain high, the red- 
dened waves with wide wreckage strewn, shall leave 
this brave Armada, but vast and reeking ruin. 

LORD HOWARD 

[Entering in haste.] 

Captains all, I have just ridden down from the quay 
where a swift ship has come with tidings that the great 
Armada has been sighted and is coming up the chan- 
nel. The Queen will be here anon to attend the last 
muster of our troops. Let us to our posts to await 
her arrival. 

[They all go off in haste. In the distance trumpet-calls 
and alarms are heard, cannon shots and rolling drums.] 

[The Indians left behind, the innkeeper gestures them to 
rise. They, however, remain stolid. In despair he 
calls out, "Sir Walter, Sir Walter!" running off for 
assistance. The prentices are afraid to move as or- 
dered. At length at their own will the red men rise 
slowly and move off with great dignity, the drawers 
scurrying before them.] 



40 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

[Then enter the files of soldiers bearing muskets, and the 
seamen bearing pikes, their officers preceding. A can- 
non is trundled in. All take their stations. The en- 
trance of a herald and a trumpet-call announce the 
arrival of QUEEN ELIZABETH, on horseback and clad in 
armor. She is attended by the sea-captains and other 
officers on horseback, headed by the two commanders, 
LORD HOWARD and SIR FRANCIS DRAKE; then SIR WAL- 
TER RALEIGH and the rest. All dismount except THE 
QUEEN. LORD HOWARD, giving his horse to an attend- 
ant, stands at THE QUEEN'S bridle. All salute.'] 

LORD HOWARD 

Your Majesty, my gracious Queen, you see before 
you here a small portion of the forces with which by 
land and sea we do propose to meet the Spanish hosts. 

QUEEN ELIZABETH 

'Tis a goodly company, my Lord Howard. 

Gentlemen of England, brave soldiers, stalwart sea- 
men of our royal isle, I have appointed Lord Howard 
and Sir Francis here commanders of all our English 
hosts by sea and land. And these gallant captains, 
Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Martin Frobisher, and Sir 
John Hawkins, no less in valor and in honorable 
achievements, will see their orders executed. The 
sacred soil of Britain shall repulse the proud invader. 
Never while I draw breath as Queen, shall foreign 
foot be planted on our shores. Men of England, all 
Europe stands with bated breath, awaiting the issue of 
Philip's venture here. 

We have in London here a gentle player, as yet 
obscure. Some lines of his I chanced upon not long 
ago will serve our purpose now: 




Si 



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WH to "*^ 

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W o * 

M ^ 

5 -4^> 

2 s 

OD S S: 



& -^ o 
O o 

* si 

-< c 

S 'I I 

w fS 

O fc =8 

w > 1 

Bll 



The Spanish Armada, 1588 41 

"And you, good yeomen, 

Whose limbs were made in England, show us here 
The mettle of your pasture: let us swear 
That you are worth your breeding; which I doubt not; 
For there is none of you so mean and base, 
That hath not noble luster in your eyes. 
I see you stand like greyhounds in the slips, 
Straining upon the start." 

Gentlemen, to horse! The great Armada awaits 
us. God defend the right! To arms! For your 
Queen, for England, and St. George! 

[Tumultuous cheering. The sailors toss up their caps. 
The people follow THE QUEEN and the troops, shouting 
and cheering, wild with enthusiasm.] 



9 This passage glows with the spirit of the struggle against the 
Armada, and may conceivably have been struck off by Shakespeare in 
the heat of patriotic fervor, and used later in King Henry the Fifth. 



interlude 

[Chanting, THE CHORUS OF SHEPHERDS enters. Their 
kirtles are white, as before for never was promise 
more fair than the promise of England's future.] 

[THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH now unfurls the splendid banner 
of Old England, and, planting it in the center of the 
stage to suggest the triumph of England over the Ar- 
mada, speaks.] 

THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH 

And yet again, this famous figure flashes 

As "Hero of Cadiz," returned with laurels, 

Greeting the vast array of friendly folk. 

Again his vision leads them 'cross the sea, 

To fairer worlds than any they have dreamed, 

To larger conquests than the galleon-burning 

That constituted victory at Cadiz. 

As painter, gifted with a magic palette, 

He outlines deftly simple plans of state, 

Then splashes on a myriad mystic tints 

Until a form of grandeur and of grace 

Shines there resplendent, free from tyrant-taint, 

A noble figure Young America 

Her brow aglint with stars, and bearing high 

The shining torch of freedom for the world! 



[42] 



EPISODE II 

alctgf)'$ Vision of tfje J?eto Morlb, 
1596 

TIME: The summer of 1596, eight years having 
elapsed since the coming of the Armada. 

SCENE: Harrow Field on the Thames River in the 
suburbs of London, as before. A popular celebra- 
tion of the victory of the English fleet over the Span- 
iards at Cadiz, on June 20, 1596. The scene repre- 
sents the full fruition of English national life. 

[It is a colorful festival of the folk an ever-changing 
tapestry of merrymaking, of unrestrained dancing and 
song.] 

[There are many interesting figures in this motley 
throng some picturesque, others grotesque, but all 
harmonious with the occasion. Even the grimy BED- 
LAM BEGGAR has a legitimate place in the picture.] 

[Here are PEDDLARS with fine laces and ornaments, vying 
with PASTRY-COOKS and FRUIT VENDERS in crying out 
their tempting wares muffins, pears, gingerbread, tea- 
cakes. Here is one fantastically disguised as A DRAGON. 
Here is a man made up as THE HOBBYHORSE, amusing 
an admiring group of children with his imitations of 
the trotting, galloping, and curveting paces of the 
horse.] 

[There is A GYPSY in many-colored dress, attracting a 
group of admiring swains with her sinuous dancing. 
On the opposite side is A PUPPET-MASTER, calling the 
attention of a crowd of happy rustics to his perform- 
ance about to begin. AN ALCHEMIST, dimly outlined 
in a murky booth lighted with green lights, is holding a 

[43] 



44 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

company of country gulls in awestruck wonder with his 
marvelous experiments.] 

[There are many other familiar figures: the jolly TAPS- 
TER with his fat cask of ale and his generous tankards, 
WOODSMEN carrying their axes, pretty MILKMAIDS ex- 
hibiting a sleek cow with gilded horns decorated with 
flowers, A CHIMNEY-SWEEP adorned with holiday rib- 
bons, A JUGGLER, a sombre PURITAN, A BAG-PIPER, A 
JACK-IN-THE-GREEN, and ROBIN HOOD and his merry 
crew LITTLE JOHN, WILL STUKELY, FRIAR TUCK, and 
the sprightly MAID MARIAN.] 

[Now there is a loud salvo of trumpets, a momentary 
hush, and then vociferous cheering as THE LORD MAYOR 
OF LONDON enters, mounted on his footcloth horse, 
ushering in with great ceremony the heroes of Cadiz.] 

THE CROWD 

[Cheering wildly] All hail! The heroes of Cadiz! 
AU hail! 

[Enter arm in arm, SIR WALTER RALEIGH and THE EARL 
OF ESSEX gaily accoutred. RALEIGH is noticeable 
"for the splendor of his armor and ornaments. The 
very shoes upon his feet were so lavishly decorated with 
jewels, that they were said to have cost six thousand 
pounds. His sword and belt fairly glittered with large 
gems. Chains of gold fell from his neck on the highly- 
burnished breastplate. On one arm he wore conspicu- 
ously a long ribbon, which THE QUEEN had coquet- 
tishly given him as a reward for his devotion." 10 ] 

[After them RALEIGH'S cousin, SIR GEORGE CAREW, who 
commanded the Mary Rose; SIR FRANCIS VERE, captain 
of the Rainbow; SIR EDWARD WINGFIELD, CAPTAIN BAG- 
NOLL, CAPTAIN MEDICK, and other leaders of the great 
sea-fight.] 



10 Towle's Raleigh, His Exploits and Voyages, Boston, 1881, p. 169. 



Raleigh's Vision of the New World, 1596 45 

[After these comes a brilliant concourse of the chief 
poets and playmakers of the time SHAKESPEARE, now 
thirty- five years of age; BEN JONSON, FRANCIS BEAU- 
MONT, JOHN FLETCHER, EDMUND SPENSER, FRANCIS 
BACON, the rising young advocate, and others.] 

THE LORD MAYOR OF LONDON 

[Ordering the crowd to cease cheering, pompously speaks 
the address of welcome.] 

Most worthy heroes of Cadiz soldiers, mariners 
of the wooden walls of Britain you are exceedingly 
welcome on this magnanimous occasion. Your ex- 
ploits have rung throughout the wide realm of merry 
England, and we are here to do you honor and to give 
you welcome home. F faith, we have spoke of little 
else since you did sail some months agone to meet the 
giant-ships upon the Spanish Main. May it please 
you now to listen to our song of welcome! 

THE EARL OF ESSEX 

My Lord Mayor, we thank you for your hearty 
welcome and will gladly hear your song. 

[The heroes of Cadiz and their party seat themselves at 
the tables before the inn, smoking long Winchester 
pipes. The people all sing lustily A Deep Seas' Chantey, 
celebrating SIR WALTER RALEIGH and the soldiers and 
seamen of England.] 

A DEEP SEAS' CHANTEY 

0, our good ship, firm and true, Yo ho! 
Carries Britain's finest crew, Yo ho! 
Though the sea be wild and squally, 



46 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

Our captain's Walter Raleigh, 

And there's nothing he can't do, Yo ho! 

0, our good ship, Water Sprite, Yo ho! 
Sees many a gallant fight, Yo ho! 
When she hears King Philip squeal, 
She laughs from deck to keel, 
For with Raleigh she's all right, Yo ho! 

0, our guns know how to crack, Yo ho! 
And they'll take no talkin' back, Yo ho! 
Through a million ships or more, 
Those Spanish men-of-war, 
We make a blazin' track, Yo ho! 

0, our captain, he's a peer, Yo ho! 

He makes old Spain look queer, Yo ho! 

He's the best sea-dog we know, 

To hell with him we'd go, 

Why the devil should we fear, Yo ho! 

[At the conclusion of the singing THE MAYOR resumes, 
ostentatiously. ] 

THE LORD MAYOR OF LONDON 

Gentlemen, our festivities are now complete, and 
we pray you now let us hear from your own lips how 
the battle went when the proud Spaniard was humbled 
and great ships sunk. 

[A buzz of excitement, vociferous applause and loud call- 
ing from the crowd; the names of RALEIGH and ESSEX 
are heard above the tumult. The people crowd more 
closely in, some seating themselves on the ground, some 
kneeling, still others standing, intent upon seeing and 
hearing all.} 



Raleigh's Vision of the New World, 1596 47 

THE EARL OF ESSEX 

[Rising} Gentles, all, and my brave comrades in 
arms. It seems that my good rival, Sir Walter here, is 
forever to carry off the laurels though, by my troth, 
he has well earned the fame, which is more justly his. 
For mine own part, the battle plan I did propose to 
our admiral, Lord Howard, was at the very point of 
execution stayed by him by the eloquence of this 
paladin of the fleet, Sir Walter. He, with cogent 
reasons well sustained, did so o'erbear Lord Howard 
and myself that, with one accord, we did yield to 
him e'en though my troops already landing to the 
attack, I must needs recall. 

A SEA CAPTAIN 

Aye, aye, and so full of joy were you at Sir Walter's 
clever plan that you did throw your fine-plumed hat 
o'erboard. 

[Laughter and applause from the crowd. ,] 

A SAILOR 

Aye, and he did give me a sovereign, when I did 
restore it to his hand. Its finery was sadly wetted by 
the sea water. The diamond was still on the plume. 

[More laughter and cheering from the crowd.} 

THE CROWD 
Hear! hear! Essex! Essex! 



48 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

THE EARL OF ESSEX 

To Sir Walter, then, was given the high honor of 
leading the attack. His flagship, the Water-Sprite, 
floated in the forefront of the array, followed close by 
the Mary Rose and the Rainbow, while in the rear 
pressed hard the intrepid Lyon, the Dreadnaught, and 
the Nonpareill, the Warspright, the Swiftsure, and the 
Meer-Honour. 

Anon, with the first peep of day our English men-of- 
war approach the Spanish galleons. The culverins 
'gan spit back death and fire from out their iron lips. 

Ere long 'twas my good fortune to fight by Walter's 
side. So closely did we press the mighty St. Phillip 
that they were forced to blow her up rather than see 
her captured. Then did we see the swarthy Spaniards 
"tumbling into the sea, heaps of souldiers, so thick as 
if coals had been poured out of a sack in many ports 
at once; some drowned and some sticking in the 
mud." And when the fire did come to the doomed 

galleon, "the spectacle was very lamentable, 

for many drowned themselves ; many, half burnt, leapt 
into the water; many swimming, with griev- 
ous wounds, strucken under water, and put out their 
pain." There was such tearing of the ordnance, such 
deafening boom of the explosions, so huge a conflagra- 
tion, that "if any man had a desire to see Hell itself, 
it was there most lively figured." The St. Thomas, 
too, the Spaniards burnt. But, 'ere they could fire 
the arrogant St. Andrew, with his own hand did our 
brave Raleigh that mighty vessel captive take. Then 

H From Raleigh's A Relation of Cadiz Action, as printed by his 
grandson, Philip Raleigh, from a copy found among Sir Walter 
Raleigh's Papers, 1699. 



Raleigh's Vision of the New World, 1596 49 

likewise the St. Mathew did he take. And so for 
all the formidable array of Spain the proud city of 
Cadiz fell to us, and the day most happily was ours 
ours through our indomitable leader, our gallant 
Raleigh. 

THE CROWD 

[The mariners and sea-captains beat on the tables with 
their tankards and with the handles of their daggers. 
All cheer with tumultuous calls.] 

Sir Walter Raleigh! Sir Walter Raleigh! 

[RALEIGH rises and, bowing, graciously acknowledges 
their greetings.] 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

Lord Essex hath most nobly set forth our victory 
and most modestly disclaimed the very valiant part 
which his forces took in the battle by land, to the com- 
plete undoing of the Spanish hosts. And by my faith, 
gentlemen, until his men did come into the fight it 
swung most perilously to and fro. The forces of the 
land which he commanded were not one whit behind 
those of us who fought by sea. The proud port of 
Cadiz lies today utterly confounded. The Spanish 
tyrant soon shall be swept from the seas, the formida- 
ble fleets, the invincible armies vanquished all. 

THE CROWD 

[Cheering wildly] Bravo! Master Walter! Bravo! 
Hear! Hear! 



50 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

And who, let me ask you, gentlemen and yeomen 
of England, my brave lads all, who say you shall take 
the place of Spain, and sail the seas, and bring safe 
home the treasure ships laden with the red gold of 
El Dorado, the vast deposits of Spanish silver from 
the mines of Peru and Mexico; the stores of precious 
stones, the wealth of Indian spices, dyes and countless 
valued cargoes strange and rare who but bonnie 
England shall now inherit these? List, while I do 
narrate the wondrous things I did with mine own eyes 
behold in far Guiana, in the valley of the Orinoco; 
and my good captains here and the mariners all shall 
vouch for the accuracy of my tale. 

THE SEA-CAPTAINS AND MARINERS 
Aye, aye, sir, that we will. 

THE CROWD 
[Vociferously} Hear! Hear! Tell us all! 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

A land it is of abundant fruitfulness and of marvel- 
ous beauty. "On the banks of the rivers were divers 

sorts of fruits We saw birds of all colours, 

some carnation, some crimson, orange-tawny, purple, 
watchet (pale blue) , and of all other sorts, both simple 
and mixed, and it was unto us a great good-passing of 
the time to behold them. 

"When we were come to the tops of the first hills of 
the plains adjoining to the river, we beheld that won- 



Raleigh's Vision of the New World, 1596 51 

derful breach of waters which ran down Carol! ; 
and might from that mountain see the river how it ran 
in three parts, above twenty miles off, and there ap- 
peared some ten or twelve overfalls in sight, every 

one as high over the other as a church tower 

I never saw a more beautiful country, nor more lively 
prospects; hills so raised here and there over the 
valleys; the river winding into divers branches; the 
plains adjoining without bush or stubble, all fair green 

grass; the deer crossing in every path; the 

birds towards the evening singing on every tree with a 
thousand several tunes; cranes and herons of white, 
crimson, and carnation, perching in the river's side; 
the air fresh with a gentle easterly wind; and every 
stone that we stopped to take up promised either gold 
or silver by his complexion." 12 

THE CROWD 

[All give vent to long drawn sighs and stand with open 
mouths, listening intently. They are transfixed with 
amazement and admiration, too much so to offer any 
comment. SHAKESPEARE is apparently captivated. He 
walks apart a little, in deep contemplation of RALEIGH'S 
wondrous tale, and noticeably pricks up his ears as 
RALEIGH continues to recite his adventures.} 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

Strange human races do inhabit there, "called 
Ewaipanoma, reported to have their eyes in their 
shoulders, and their mouths in the middle of their 

12 From Raleigh's own narrative, The Discovery of the large, rich, 
and beautiful Empire of Guiana; with a Relation of the great and 
golden City of Manoa, which the Spaniards call El Dorado, first pub- 
lished in 1596. 



52 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

breasts, and that a long train of hair groweth back- 
ward between their shoulders." 12 

SHAKESPEARE 

[Now, too much wrought up longer to contain his thoughts, 
speaks out.] 

What magic do these words contain! They sing 
within me with sweet siren tones, of wanton 

Cannibals that each other eat, 
The Anthropophagi, and men whose heads 
Do grow beneath their shoulders. 13 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

Thus ever does our Will translate strange matters 
into rarest plays of fantasy. By my faith, my com- 
rades all, is't not a marvelous country truly and one 
well worthy of the poet's dreams? 

But, gentles all, consider well the full meaning of 
this our celebration of Cadiz, the full promise of this 
our victory on the seas in that far western world 
to us of Anglo-Saxon blood. The Empire of Spain 
in that America is reeling to its ruin. Shall we not 
rear in its stead a fairer state, one not stained with 
helpless blood, nor cursed with crimes of direst 
cruelty? There shall we raise, instead, in fair Amer- 
ica, beyond the western verge, a greater State than any 
ever forged by Spanish bonds a league of many 
peoples united all in English friendliness, of peoples 
come from many lands but speaking all one speech 
our goodly mother tongue, and of one common heart 

13 Othello, I, 3. 



lv ^ 







Raleigh's Vision of the New World, 1596 53 

of comradeship. I see on the far verge of that New 
Day a fairer El Dorado than ever Spaniard dreamed, 
a sunb right nation of immortal youth in fair America ! 

SHAKESPEARE 

[Rising up, exclaims] I'll set it down your vi- 
sion in a play in verse immortal. 

0, wonder! 

How many goodly creatures are there here! 
How beauteous mankind is! brave new world 
That has such people in't! x 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

'Tis nobly said, good Master Will, and worthy of 
my vision of this brave new world and the old there 
joining hands to right the old world wrongs, to lift up 
manhood, truth, justice, mercy in larger, freer, 
brotherhood. 

SHAKESPEARE 

How beauteous mankind is! brave new world 
That has such people in't! 

THE PEOPLE 

[In their enthusiasm all join in SHAKESPEARE'S happy 
phrasing of RALEIGH'S vision.] 

brave new world! 

[In the distance is heard a chorus of voices singing, God 
Save Britannia's Queen, as in the opening scene, and 
the people follow after RALEIGH and his company, tak- 
ing up the song as they go.] 

l* The Tempest, V, 1. 



THE INTERLUDE 



[551 



SIR WALTER RALEIGH, gallant victor over the gal- 
leons of Spain, now becomes the victim of Stuart 
tyranny immured in gloomy dungeon cell, foregoing 
his ambitious dream of empire and his desperate 
ventures 'gainst the Spanish tyrant. Then comes the 
vision of the Orinoco, once more luring him to the 
Spanish Main. But like those other brave adventurers 
who followed the call of the New World Colum- 
bus, Ponce De Leon, De Navarez, De Soto, Pizarro 
he is led to ruin, heart-break, and at last to death, 
noble, though in a prison cell. 



[56] 



3faterlube 



[Slowly enters THE CHORUS OF SHEPHERDS, chanting as 
before. In kirtles, now of sombre gray, they appear 
as though a cloud had suddenly dimmed the white 
radiance of the morning.} 

[As THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH enters, also gray-kirtled, he 
holds aloft a flaming torch, symbolic of the deathless 
light of Liberty. In vivid contrast comes the lingering, 
almost weary cadence of the music, as gray in tone as 
the kirtles in color, both typifying the menace to Eng- 
land of the cloud of Stuart tyranny which looms on 
the horizon, and threatens to sweep away the fruitage 
of the centuries.] 

THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH 

And now, as oft, in peaceful summer noon-tides 
Comes a quick stir, then onrush of the storm 
With blinding flash, and beat of cruel hail, 
Breaking, twisting, stamping into earth 
The hardly-nurtured crops so rich in promise, 
So on that lustrous noon of England's life 
Came sudden crash and deluge of a storm 
The rough and ruthless Stuart tyranny. 
Immured now in sunless prison cell 
Is brave Sir Walter, England's finest lance 
In valiant joust against the lists of Spain. 
His vision of an Empire, righteous, free, 
Doth waver, dimmed by persecution cruel. 



157] 



THE SECOND PART 
THE MARTYRDOM OF RALEIGH 



159] 




A CELL IN THE BLOODY TOWER WHERE RALEIGH WAS CONFINED FOR 

THIRTEEN YEARS 
From a drawing by J. Wykeham Archer, 1851 



EPISODE I 



Hure of tfje rtnoco, 1617 

TIME: Early in April, 1617. 

SCENE: A pleasant garden adjoining the Tower 
of London, in which Raleigh had been confined for 
twelve years by King James I under the false accusa- 
tion of high treason, charged with having instigated a 
plot against the King. Raleigh was given the free- 
dom of this garden through the thoughtful kindness 
of the lieutenant of the Tower, Sir George Harvey. 
Here he passed many hours in studying botany and 
in making experiments in chemistry, pursuits of which 
he was very fond. Here he was engaged for a number 
of years in writing his History of the World and 
various political essays. 

[RALEIGH is now past sixty years of age, his hair and 
beard are grizzled, his stalwart figure somewhat bent, 
his face pale and considerably wrinkled with care and 
sorrow. He enters reading a quarto volume, which is 
no other than a copy of SHAKESPEARE'S play, The Tem- 
pest. He seats himself by a rustic table and continues 
reading.] 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

He did not fail in his promise, Master Shakespeare. 
Here it is his latest play, The Tempest. How preg- 
nant are his words even yet the lines of Miranda on 
the enchanted island when first she views the ship- 
wrecked mariners shipwrecked, alas! like me, im- 
prisoned here. 

[81] 



62 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

"0, wonder! 

How many goodly creatures are there here! 
How beauteous mankind is! brave new world 
That has such people in't." 

So Shakespeare has immortalized in rarest verse my 
venture in the brave new world, in the enchanted land 
of Venezuela, in the valley, Orinoco. 

[A faithful OLD SERVANT enters humming a plaintive 
ditty. Looking up from his reading, RALEIGH inquires.] 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

My good fellow, from whence comes that ancient 
melody you sing? 

THE OLD SERVANT 

It do be one that my old grandam used to sing as 
she span by the sea-coal fire in Devon, when I was but 
a wanton boy. 

[THE OLD SERVANT goes out, droning his song, and 

RALEIGH falls asleep over his book.] 
[Now in a soft golden light in the background of the 

scene appear to him dream- pictures from his past life, 

in pantomime, while music plays.] 

1. RALEIGH, the courtier, spreading his cloak be- 
fore QUEEN ELIZABETH. 

2. RALEIGH wooing the golden-haired ELIZABETH 
THROGMORTON, and the haughty QUEEN dismiss- 
ing him in wrath. 



The Tempest, V, 1. 



The Lure of the Orinoco, 1617 63 

3. RALEIGH, the colonizer, and GOVERNOR WHITE 
of Virginia, with MANTEO and WANCHESE, the 
Indians. 

4. RALEIGH with his wife and children in his spa- 
cious manor-house of Sherborne. 

5. RALEIGH in Guiana showing the Indians a por- 
trait of QUEEN ELIZABETH. 

6. RALEIGH, victorious, surrounded with his gal- 
lant comrades-in-arms after the capture of Cadiz. 

7. RALEIGH in the Tower, seated at a table, a few books 
by him, writing his History of the World. 

[Then the music swells into a languorous, oriental 
strain, suggesting the lure of the Orinoco, of fabled El 
Dorado, and the golden city of Manoa. There appears 
a dream figure, at first dimly, then brilliantly shining 
in the golden light, the splendid Queen of the Carribean, 
VENEZUELA, 15 attended by THE SPIRIT OF THE ORINOCO, 
a dancing water-sprite.] 

[VENEZUELA, seated on a richly gilded throne, listlessly 
waves a fan of peacock plumes. She is a luxuriant 
brunette of tropic beauty, with lustrous ebon eyes, of 
dull copper skin heightened by vermillion pigment 
glowing in her cheeks. She is gorgeously attired in 
cloth-of-gold, glittering with many-colored jewels, and 
is crowned with a tiara of rare plumage from the flame- 
red flamingo.] 

[Attending her is the laughing water-sprite, ORINOCO, 
dressed in shimmering silver and sparkling with myriad 
gems, suggesting the lure of the shining river of 
Raleigh's dreams. ORINOCO is crowned with rich blos- 
soms and dances with festoons and flying sprays of the 
same. She wears a plume of brilliant emerald, and a 

!5 So named by Ojeda, the Spanish navigator, and meaning "Little 
Venice," because of the native houses the explorer built on piles 
along the shore of Lake Maracaibo. 



64 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

girdle of pale yellow, symbolic of the spell of tropic 
forests and of the golden treasure-city of his quest. 
She dancesi blithely now before RALEIGH, the charm of 
her person and the witchery of her movements suggest- 
ing the maze of windings in which the explorer is lured 
and finally lost.] 

THE SPIRIT OF THE ORINOCO 

[Singing softly.] 

Come, Orinoco calls, calls you again! 

Come to Orinoco, land of the yellow gold! 

The soft winds singing, the odorous breezes laden, 

The myriad sweet bird-voices, the river sweeping to 
the sea, 

All invite you back again, to come again. 

From the land of harsh-cold winter, from cruel pris- 
oning walls, 

Orinoco calls again; to the mellow golden sun- land 

Come, my mariner sea-buffeted, 'tis Orinoco calls. 

Come, find in balmy sun-lands, fresh life, perennial 
Youth! 

[Now RALEIGH has risen to his feet, captivated by the 
flashing beauty and the siren song of THE SPIRIT OF 
ORINOCO. His sombre cloak falls from his shoulders 
and vanishes, revealing him in shining crimson, in fresh 
attire of silk and velvet. His bent shoulders straighten 
and he is again the stalwart, lusty adventurer of the 
former years.] 

[As the dream- figure fades, with a new light transfiguring 
his face, RALEIGH stands forth once more fully erect, 
and cries out exultingly.] 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 
The Western Land calls me and I go again! The 



The Lure of the Orinoco, 1617 65 

King's will I'll bend to mine, by the fair words of his 
latest favorite, of his sweet Lord Villiers. These 
prison walls I'll burst asunder. Once more I'll sail 
the seas as "Shepherd of the Ocean," once more to- 
ward Orinoco set my course, toward lands of setting 
sun to fair and goodly western world to New 
America ! 



Jnttrlube 

[With ponderous step THE CHORUS OF SHEPHERDS enters, 
now in dead-black kirtles, their heads bent with grief. 
The music falls into a dull minor; its rhythm becomes 
heavy and slow.] 

[THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH enters, also black-robed. His 
countenance is shadowed, his step less free. His torch 
burns now with but a feeble light uncertain, waver- 
ing, as though the flame of Liberty were about to 
flicker and die.] 

THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH 

But now at length, the ruthless bars are loosed, 
And, burning with the new-awakened dream 
Of spoils and conquest on the Spanish Main, 
Raleigh comes forth to follow the mirage 
That leads him to destruction, dire and vast. 
Undone by fatal lure of Orinoco, 
His cherished son the prey of Spanish hate, 
Returns the martyr, stripped of every hope. 
Yet as he waits, within the dungeon dark, 
The carrion hour of Death that hovers near, 
His noble heart recks not of all his woes, 
But, soaring up beyond the sky-lark's heaven, 
Doth find its rest in God's own dwelling place. 



[66] 



EPISODE II 



tsf)'g Hafit Venture, 1617 



TIME: An April day in 1617. 

SCENE: An open place in the environs of London, 
adjoining the Thames; a dais and temporary throne 
has been erected for King James at the right. Prepa- 
rations have heen made for the sailing of Raleigh's 
fleet, consisting of a new flag-ship, The Destiny, 
eleven other good-sized vessels, two fly-boats, and a 
caravel. 

[Enter SIR WALTER RALEIGH and his company, consisting 
of sixty gentlemen of rank, sea-captains, soldiers and 
mariners, two hundred volunteers in all. RALEIGH is 
now sixty-four years of age. After twelve years' im- 
prisonment in the Tower the figure of the sturdy cavalier 
appears somewhat stooped, his hair and beard grizzled, 
his face pale and care-worn, his features grave and sad- 
dened, but his heroic spirit is still unshaken and the old 
ambition still lights his eye. His eldest son, WALTER, 
is now a spirited and valiant youth of twenty-three.} 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

The King comes anon to see me embark for the 
Orinoco country; Villiers has proved a good advocate 
and his anti-Spanish policy has prevailed so far as to 
permit of our adventure. 'Tis true he was somewhat 
importunate with the King in demanding title, as sole 
lord and proprietor, to all the land I may discover. 



[67] 



68 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

A GENTLEMAN 
And did the King grant his request? 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

Verily, he can refuse him nothing saving the half 
of his kingdom. Yet it has fallen out exceeding well, 
Villiers is all for Holland against the Spaniard. We 
may perchance see Armada days again. 

A HERALD 
[Enters, announcing] Gentlemen, the King. 

[KiNG JAMES I. enters, leaning on the arm of LORD 
GEORGE VILLIERS, his favorite, and followed by his 
entire retinue of courtiers and attendants. "No sov- 
ereign could have jarred against the conception of an 
English ruler, which had grown up under Plantagenet 
or Tudor, more utterly than James the First. His big 
head, his slobbering tongue, his quilted clothes, his 
rickety legs, stood out in as grotesque a contrast with 
all that men recalled of Henry or Elizabeth as his 
gabble and rhodomontade, his want of personal dignity, 
his buffoonery, his coarseness of speech, his pedantry, 
his contemptible cowardice." 16 ] 

["GEORGE VILLIERS, DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM, his favorite, 
indeed had no considerable abilities, but his self-confi- 
dence and recklessness were equal to his beauty; and 
the haughty young favorite, on whose neck James loved 
to loll, and whose cheek he slobbered with kisses, was 
destined to drag down in his fatal career the throne of 
the Stuarts." 17 ] 



16 Green's Short History of the English People. N. Y., 1894, p. 477. 

17 Ibid., p. 488. 



Raleigh's Last Venture, 1617 69 

[THE KING pays no attention to RALEIGH'S presence, but 
converses some time with VILLJERS in an undertone.] 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

[Advancing to the throne and dropping on one knee.] 

Your Majesty is most gracious in honoring my poor 
ship company here by his royal presence. We betake 
ourselves right merrily to our task when once we are 
assured that we have obtained the royal favor. 

KING JAMES 

[Ill-naturedly] Beshrew me, you discourse but 
rawly of my favor. [Laughter from the courtiers.] 
It is ne'er bestowed except on merit of such surpass- 
ing excellence as leaves no question. My faithful 
Villiers, here, is one in a thousand, and I have picked 
him out of ten thousand churlish fellows who could 
not be persuaded to address a King as becomes his 
divine power and mission on this earth. 

[THE KING continues his conversation with VILLIERS in 
an aside; he appears to be in an ill-temper and exceed- 
ingly unwilling even yet to let RALEIGH go, but he is 
overpersuaded by VILLIERS, who presses THE KING 
hard for the favor. ~\ 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

[Rising, impatient to be gone, and fearful that permission 
may, after all, be withheld.} 

Your Majesty, you have graciously permitted me 
and mine eldest son to go with this brave company to 
explore once more the golden country of the Orinoco. 
We have, in truth 



70 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

KING JAMES 

[Sharply interrupting him] Sirrah! not so fast, by 
my sooth. You presume too much on my royal pa- 
tience. It is true that by the earnest intercession of 
my Lord Villiers, here, I have in a certain sort granted 
you the leave he did ask of me. What you gave him 
for his intercession I care not, nor do I reck with what 
golden promises you stuffed his ears 'gainst the well- 
proved charge that but lately did blazon forth your 
shame to all true Englishmen. 

VILLIERS 
[Protestingly] My lord! my lord! 

KING JAMES 

Ha! ha! my Villiers, do'st feel the prick of my 
tongue? Tis meant to lower the crest of yonder 
springle there, pranking in his newly-furbished finery. 
He makes a brave show, truly, but I doubt not it was 
paid for out of his already ruined estate which, like 
a desperate gambler, he doth risk at a single hazard. 
Right well he knoweth that he still lies under sentence 
of death for treason. 

[To Raleigh] Come closer, my fine gentleman, erst- 
while pirate and Spanish hater; let me give you a word 
for your private ear. [RALEIGH advances and bows 
on one knee.] It would better become you, my proud 
sir, were you on both knees; but it will pass, it will 
pass. [Ironically.] I doubt not your profoundest 
loyalty and devotion for your sovereign; your prison 
sentence has doubtless taught you that much wisdom, 



Raleigh's Last Venture, 1617 71 

and your son, too. Look ye, Master Raleigh, see him 
better taught than his father, that he may grow up a 
dutiful subject and a good Christian e'en like my 
Lord Villiers here. 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

Your Majesty's commands shall be duly heeded. I 
pray you, now, since the wind and tide are most favor- 
able, that you will give us your royal leave to be 
gone upon our journey. 

KING JAMES 

[Venting his ill-humor without restraint.] You 
are an ungrateful, low-born cur that dost continually 
bark at the heels of the gentlemen of this realm. 
Begone with you and all your pestilent crew. Be- 
ware of trenching upon the realms and prerogatives 
of my good brother, the King of Spain! 

LORD VILLIERS 

[Pompously] And, Sir Walter, see that nothing is 
done to diminish the honor and the dignity of the 
estate you have promised to find for me in the new 
world. There must be gold enough, come back with 
you, to nigh sink a treasure fleet of Spain. Look to 
it, Sir Walter, look to it! 18 



18 Villiers here refers to the state subsidy in support of the fleet 
which he had wrung from the unwilling King, and which Raleigh had 
assured him would be repaid out of the spoils of the venture. 



72 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

[Who has risen while VILLIERS was speaking, and now 
replies with dignity and firmness.'] 

My lord, you have laid upon us a heavy charge 
which may well prove too much for our strength. I 
will bear your commands constantly in mind, and as 
far as in me lies I will carry them out to the very 
letter. 

KING JAMES 

Beshrew me, Villiers, he doth already begin to 
blanch at it. I warrant you he, and his whole com- 
pany, will turn tail and run at the sight of the first 
Spanish argosy. We shall have them back, anon, 
within the fortnight, begging for safer service under 
our royal banner. 

[The courtiers all laugh.] 

[The company of SIR WALTER has borne the humiliating 
taunts thus far with patience, but with this aspersion on 
their courage angry murmurs rise from the groups of 
gentlemen and menacing., low-voiced oaths are heard 
here and there among the seamen.] 

KING JAMES 

[Half starting from his throne.~\ What's this? 
Treason, my Villiers? Shall we not call in the guard 
and send these crack-brained fellows to the Tower? 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

[Coming forward and attempting to push VILLIERS 
aside.] Your Majesty, my Lord Villiers, you have 



Raleigh's Last Venture, 1617 73 

mistaken, there are no traitors here. The angry mur- 
murs you did hear, the grim sailor oaths, but 'gainst 
the Spanish uttered. The best leashed pack, my lord, 
must give tongue when the stag's in sight. Believe 
me, there are not more loyal subjects in all England 
than my brave shipmates here. 

KING JAMES 

[Still pale and discomposed.] It may be so, in 
very sooth, as you say. Villiers, we have business 
elsewhere that demands our immediate presence. 
Let us away. Farewell, Sir Walter, and good gentles 
all. 

[He goes out leaning on his favorite's arm and is followed 
by his retinue.] 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

A narrow escape, truly. Had my invention failed 
me in this pinch, we had all ended our venture in the 
Tower. 

A SHIP-CAPTAIN 

Aye, aye, you did rarely speak for us. We cannot 
stomach such currish fawning as some delight in, and 
if I wot there was such a lick-spittle fellow among us 
I'd pitch him o'erboard ere he should sail in honest 
company. 

[They converse in dumb show and move slowly out after 
RALEIGH, while THE SPIRIT OF THE ORINOCO, reappear- 
ing to RALEIGH, points the way. Now she appears 
transformed into a figure of sinister beauty, the yellow- 

10 



74 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

golden girdle now a green serpent symbolic of the 
fatal nature of her charms.] 

[RALEIGH hesitates, and wavers perceptibly, before fol- 
lowing after her, realizing the grave dangers of his 
venture perhaps moved by a foreboding of the unfor- 
tunate outcome of his quest.] 

[But presently he yields, banishing from his mind the 
impending fears, and follows after her as she dances in 
a pale green glow of light to a weird strain of music, to 
lead him to his fate.] 



interlude 

THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH 

What is our life? The play of passion. 
Our mirth? The music of division: 
Our mothers' wombs the tiring-houses be, 
Where we are dressed for life's short comedy. 
The earth the stage; Heaven the spectator is, 
Who sits and views whosoe'er doth act amiss. 
The graves which hide us from the scorching sun 
Are like drawn curtains when the play is done. 
Thus playing post we to our latest rest, 
And then we die in earnest, not in jest. 

S r W. R. 



[75] 



EPISODE III 



&atntitt, 1618 

TIME : Near midnight, October 28, 1618, the night 
preceding the execution of Sir Walter Raleigh. 

SCENE: The garden adjoining the prison of Ra- 
leigh, as in Episode I. 

[RALEIGH enters, pale and haggard, looks up to the night 
sky, then slowly seats himself at the table where he has 
been writing. Some distant revelers are heard singing 
in chorus God Save Britannia's Queen. RALEIGH sighs.] 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

The spacious days of Queen Elizabeth! Virginia! 
Virginia! 

[A rough sailor chantey is heard, faintly, in another 
direction, the Deep-Seas' Chantey, recalling to him the 
victory of Cadiz.] 

The brave days of Cadiz! 
[He takes up the manuscript.] 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

Thus do I end my letter to my fair wife: 
"You shall receave, deare wief, my last words in 
these my last lynes. My love I send you, that you 
may keepe it when I am dead; and my councell, that 
you may remember it when I am noe more. I would 
not, with my last Will, present you with sorrowes, 

1771 



78 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

deare Besse. Lett them go to the grave with me, and 
be buried in the dust. And seeing it is not the will of 
God that ever I shall see you in this lief, beare my 
destruccion gentlie and with a hart like yourself. 

"I cannot wright much. God knows howe hardlie 
I stole this tyme, when all sleep; and it is tyme to 
separate my thoughts from the world. Begg my dead 
body, which living was denyed you; and either lay itt 
att Sherborne if the land continue, or in Exiter church 
by my father and mother. I can wright noe more. 
Tyme and Death call me awaye. 

"The everlasting, infinite powerfull, and inscruta- 
ble God, that Almightie God that is goodness itself, 
mercy itself, the true lief and light, keep you and 
yours, and have mercy on me, and teach me to forgeve 
my persecutors and false accusers; and send us to 
meete in His glorious kingdome. My true wief , fare- 
well. Blesse my poore boye; pray for me. My true 
God hold you both in His armes. 

"Written with the dyeing hand of sometyme thy 
husband, but now (alasse!) overthrowne. 

"Your's that was; but nowe not my owne, 

"W. RALEGH." 19 

[Enter THE DEAN OF WESTMINSTER, also A SPY of the 
government, who remains in the background throughout 
this scene.] 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 
[To the DEAN OF WESTMINSTER.] Good friend, 

19 From his letter to Lady Raleigh, written from Winchester, De- 
cember, 1603, on the eve of his expected execution. Printed from a 
contemporaneous transcript, Domestic Correspondence; James I., vol. 
XCVI, paragraph 71 (Rolls House). 



The Sacrifice, 1618 79 

you have come to give me the spiritual consolation of 
the final sacrament. I can partake of it in all inno- 
cency of heart as becometh a true Christian, and not a 
traitor as I am charged. 

[SiR WALTER RALEIGH then partakes of the last sacra* 
ment. Then enter SEVERAL GENTLEMEN, friends of RA- 
LEIGH.] 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

Good friends, you are welcome. My time is short, 
yet I would not have one of you leave me in doubt as 
to my innocency of the heavy charges laid against me, 
upon which my judges did base my sentence of death. 

At the trial I was given no opportunity to face my 
accusers; indeed, my death was determined from the 
first. The charges made against me are so manifestly 
false that they could not in a single point bear the 
scrutiny of a fair trial. In my letter to the King I 
have set forth clearly my answers to all the charges 
wrongfully alleged against me. "It is no time for 
me to flatter or to fear princes, I, who am subject only 
unto death; and for me, who have now to do with 
God alone, to tell a lie to get the favour of the King 
were in vain." 20 

THE DEAN OF WESTMINSTER 

We are convinced, sir, that you do lie under a 
wrongful accusation. 

[THE GENTLEMEN present assent to this.] 



20 From Raleigh's dying speech on the scaffold as printed in The 
Life of Sir Walter Raleigh, by William Oldys, 1736. 



80 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

A GENTLEMAN 

This trial hath injured and degraded the Justice of 
England. 21 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

My friends, I thank you for this last testimony of 
your honorable esteem. "And now I entreat, that you 
all will join with me in prayer to that great God of 
Heaven whom I have grievously offended, being a man 

full of all vanity, who has lived a sinful life 

that His almighty goodness will forgive me; that He 
will cast away my sins from me; and that He will 
receive me into everlasting life ; so I take my leave of 
you all, making my peace with God." 20 

[RALEIGH seats himself and bows his head as if in 
prayer.] 

[The bell tolls the execution hour. He rises.] 

"0 eloquent, just, and mighty Death! whom none 
could advise, thou hast persuaded; what none hath 
dared, thou hast done; and whom all the world hath 
flattered, thou only has cast out of the world and des- 
pised; thou hast drawn together all the far-stretched 
greatness, all the pride, cruelty, and ambition of man, 
and covered it all over with these two narrow words, 
Hicjacet!" 22 

[THE BELLMAN enters with a lantern.] 



21 A statement credited to one of the judges who took part in 
Raleigh's trial in 1603. 

22 From The History of the World, written in the Tower, and pub- 
lished in 1614. 



. 




The Sacrifice, 1618 81 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 

It is time for us to part. Farewell, good friends. 
[He goes toward the door. The bell tolls again.] 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH 
[To one of the GENTLEMEN.] 

Will you keep these poor lines of mine in remem- 
brance of this time? 

[He reads from a manuscript.] 

"Even such is time, that takes in trust 
Our youth, our joys, our all we have, 

And pays us but with earth and dust; 
Who, in the dark and silent grave, 

When we have wandered all our ways, 

Shuts up the story of our days; 

But from this earth, this grave, this dust, 

My God shall raise me up, I trust!" 23 

[In the distance now he hears again the people singing 
God Save Britannia's Queen.] 

Virginia! my "lost colony" 24 of Virginia! My 

23 Verses found in Sir Walter Raleigh's Bible in the gatehouse at 
Westminster, and said to have been written the night before his death. 

24 The disappearance of the Colonists of Sir Walter Raleigh remains 
an unsolved mystery to this day. White wrote in his account of the 
search for the "Lost Colony" in 1590 (printed in Hackluyt's Voyages), 
"We espied towards the North end of the Hand ye light of a great fire 
thorow the woods, to which we presently rowed; when wee came right 
over against it, we let fall our Grapnel neere the shore, & sounded 
with a trumpet Call, & afterwardes many familiar English tunes of 
Songs, and called to them friendly; but we had no answere, we there- 
fore landed at day breake, and coming to the fire, we found the grasse 
& sundry rotten trees burning about the place. From hence we went 
thorow the woods to that part of the Hand directly over against 
Dasamongwepeuk, & from thence we returned by the water side, 



82 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

"Citie of Ralegh in Virginia" lost indeed. But not 
all vain for Jamestown thrives, and Virginia "will 
yet see itself an English nation!" 25 

round about the North point of the Hand, untill we came to the place 
where I left our Colony in the yeere 1586 (1587) . In all this way we 
saw in the sand the print of the Salvages feet of 2 or 3 sorts troaden 
ye night, and as we entered up the sandy banke upon a tree, in the 
very browe thereof were curiously carved three faire Romane letters 
C R 0; which letters presently we knew to signifie the place, where 
I should find the planters seated, according to a secret token agreed 
upon betweene them & me at my last departure from them, which was, 
that in any wayes they should not fail to write or carve on the trees or 
posts of the dores the name of the place where they should be seated; 
for at my coming away they were prepared to remove from Roanoak 
50 miles into the maine. Therefore at my departure from them in 
An. 1587 I willed them, that if they should happen to be distressed in 
any of those places, that then they should carve over the letters or 
name, a Crosse X in this forme, but we found no such signe of dis- 
tresse. And having well considered of this, we passed toward the 
place where they were left in sundry houses, but we found the houses 
taken downe, and the place very strongly enclosed with a high pali- 
sado of great trees, with cortynes and flankers very Fortlike, and one 
of the chiefe trees or postes at the right side of the entrance had the 
barke taken off, and 5 foote from the ground in fayre Capitall letters 
was graven CROATOAN without any cross or sign of distresse; this 
done, we entered into the palisado, where we found many barres of 
Iron, two piggies of lead, foure yron fowlers, Iron sacker-shotte, and 
such like heavie things, throwen here and there, almost overgrowen 

with grasse and weedes but although it much grieved me to 

see such spoyle of my goods, yet on the other hand I greatly joyed 
that I had safely found a certaine token of their safe being at 
Croatoan, which is the place where Manteo was borne, and the Sav- 
ages of the Hand our friends." 

Perhaps the most popular theory advanced in explanation of the 
mysterious exodus of Raleigh's Colonists is that, despairing of the 
return of Governor White, they moved to Croatoan and intermarried 
with the friendly Croatan Indians, who proudly claim to this day their 
descent from the Colonists of Raleigh. The supporters of this theory 
claim that the habits, mental traits and disposition of the Croatan 
Indians of Robeson County, North Carolina, of the present day indi- 
cate traces of such civilized ancestry, that their language is still the 
English of three centuries ago, and that their names are in many cases 
the family names of the original Colonists. 

25 Raleigh wrote, just before his loss of fortune and of favor, "I 
shall yet live to see it an English nation." 



The Sacrifice, 1618 83 

And still America, Virginia, new England! 
What magic words in this my passing hour! 
They conjure back the daring vision-days, 
And my sure trust in lands beyond the sea. 

America! Virginia! New England! 

What though my star stoop not to its eclipse, 

Still it doth harbinger the New Day's dawn. 

And by that way I have so blithely gone, 

Sea-buffeted, with all my gallant men, 

A brave new world will yet be won by English 

Youth across the seas a sunbright world 

Of high resolve of faith, and love, and Liberty! 



[He goes, in answer to the summons of THE BELLMAN.] 



THE EPILOGUE 



[851 



Cptlogue 

[The music sweeps into a strong major. THE CHORUS OF 
SHEPHERDS enters, chanting the return of THE SPIRIT 
OF YOUTH. Their kirtles now are of flaming rose, and 
all bear torches burning brightly.] 

THE CHORUS OF SHEPHERDS 

Children of Youth, believers in Youth, 
Lovers of Youth's heart of flame, 
Prepare ye your hearts for Youth's wisdom, 
For Youth is the teacher of men. 

THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH 

As long ago, three hundred years today, 

Sir Walter Raleigh met his arduous task 

Of pouring out such flow of martyr's blood 

As should allay the thirst of vengeful king, 

So doth he symbolize the noble strife 

Of England in her quest for liberty. 

Her own good realm she safe 'gainst foe did make, 

Repulsing, under valiant Marlborough, 

Superior force arrayed on Blenheim field. 

Another despot, great Napoleon, 

Who shook his mailed fist terrifically 

In Europe's pallid, pain-distorted face, 

She vanquished famously at Waterloo. 



[871 



88 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

THE CHORUS OF SHEPHERDS 

Children of Youth, believers in Youth, 
Lovers of Youth's heart of flame, 
Prepare ye your hearts for Youth's wisdom, 
For Youth is the teacher of men. 

THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH 

And now again, in this age of Today, 
When all the world lay basking quietly 
Beneath the bright, warm sun of peace and faith. 
When cruel hordes did sweep relentlessly, 
Despoiling Belgium, threatening fair France, 
Again did England bare her dauntless breast, 
And strike, as oft of old, for Liberty. 
Then did America, with zealous pride, 
Make good her kinship with these loyal brave, 
Who bore the grim brunt of those sullen hosts. 

THE CHORUS OF SHEPHERDS 

Children of Youth, believers in Youth, 
Lovers of Youth's heart of flame, 
Prepare ye your hearts for Youth's wisdom, 
For Youth is the teacher of men. 

THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH 

Now hark ye to the vision of fair Youth! 

The day will come when mankind's highest pride 

Shall be no longer in the vast array 

And panoply of war, but, rectified, 

Shall find delight in all those happy arts 

That make the earth a temple unto Peace, 



The Epilogue 89 

A temple of the free-born sons of men. 
Together all shall we find the way at last 
Unto that broader country where the Light 
Doth shine for all not sun for but a few, 
And dismal light for others, evermore 
But Light for all, and Life for all, 
And happiness secure, 
And Freedom safe o'er all the earth, 
While mankind shall endure. 

THE CHORUS OF SHEPHERDS 

Children of Youth, believers in Youth, 
Lovers of Youth's heart of flame, 
Prepare ye your hearts for Youth's wisdom, 
For Youth is the teacher of men. 

[After The Epilogue is spoken and THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH 
with the accompaning CHORUS OF SHEPHERDS has de- 
parted, in the distance a chorus of voices is heard sing- 
ing God Save Britannia's Queen, as in the spacious days 
of good QUEEN BESS.] 

[From the opposite side, to the same music, comes a 
swelling chorus singing Hail America! the stanzas of 
the two hymns being sung alternately, while the banners 
of both nations appear united in a Field of Light!] 

HAIL, AMERICA! 

All hail, America, 

Hail, my America! 
Liberty-land of sunbright birth, 
Glory of peoples 'round the earth, 
Liberty-land o'er all the earth! 

All hail America! 



12 



90 Raleigh, the Shepherd of the Ocean 

Wake, my America, 

Wake, all America! 
People of mountain, people of plain, 
Singing together in Freedom's refrain, 
Singing the chorus again and again, 

All hail America! 

Rise, my America, 

Rise, all America! 
Sing we the People our Liberty-song, 
Marching, marching, marching along, 
Marching and singing our Liberty-song, 

All hail America! 

Sing, my America, 

Sing, all America! 
Song of the trail of the pioneer toil, 
Earth-song, sun-song, song of the soil, 
Song of our sun-born native soil, 

All hail America! 



[During the singing SIR WALTER RALEIGH returns. He 
stands for a moment silent, in the Field of Light. His 
mission has been accomplished. His vision of the New 
World has been fulfilled!] 




APPENDIX 



191] 



Directors of tfje pageant 



AUTHOR 
FREDERICK H. KOCH 

DRAMATIC DIRECTOR 
ELIZABETH B. GRIMBALL 

DIRECTOR OF THE CHORUS 
S. DINGLEY BROWN 

DIRECTOR OF THE CHILDREN'S CHORUS 
CLARA VOYLE 

DIRECTOR OF THE ORCHESTRA 
ARTHUR FILLMORE CAIN 

DIRECTORS OF DANCING 
GRACE HOUCHEN and J. RICHARD CROZIER 

DIRECTOR OF COSTUMES AND PROPERTIES 
ELIZABETH L. GRIMES 

DIRECTOR OF LIGHTING 
PARKER H. DAGGETT 

DIRECTOR OF SETTINGS 
FRANK B. SIMPSON 

DIRECTOR OF STAGE CONSTRUCTION 
WILLIAM L. BEASLEY 



[93] 



Committee* of tije pageant 



THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE 

MR. W. L. BEASLEY, Chairman (Rotary Club) 

MR. A. T. BOWLER, Secretary (American Legion) 

MR. C. T. MCCLENAGHAN, Treasurer (Shriners' Club) 

MRS. J. BRYAN GRIMES (Woman's Club) 

DR. W. C. HORTON (Chamber of Commerce) 

DR. J. RICHARD CROZIER (Kiwanis Club) 

Miss ELLEN DURHAM (Daughters of the American Revolution) 

MR. R. D. W. CONNOR and DR. GEORGE J. RAMSEY 

(North Carolina Literary and Historical Association) 

THE PRODUCTION COMMITTEE 

MRS. J. BRYAN GRIMES, Chairman 

MRS. WILBUR BUNN MRS. FRANK CASTLEBURY 

DR. W. C. HORTON 

THE PUBLICITY COMMITTEE 

DR. W. C. HORTON, Chairman 

Miss NELL BATTLE LEWIS and Miss SUSAN PRANDS IDEN 
(Representing the Press) 

THE FINANCE COMMITTEE 

MR. C. T. MCCLANAGHAN, Chairman 
MRS. B. H. GRIFFIN 

THE BOOK COMMITTEE 

MR. R. D. W. CONNOR, Chairman 

DR. GEORGE J. RAMSEY 
1941 



principal JHaper* of fyt 

THE SPIRIT OF YOUTH Grace. Houchen 

THE CHORUS OF SHEPHERDS Martha Adams, Edith GUI, Laura Jones 

Louise Brockman, Alice Hedrick, Jarde 
Trent, Mildred Adams, Ruth Teachey. 

w , \ Part I, Walter Simpson 

SIR WALTER RALEIGH } Part II, Dr. W. C. Horton 

QUEEN ELIZABETH Muriel Victor Castlebury 

THE EARL OF ESSEX Hardy Murfree Ray 

SIR FRANCIS DRAKE Arthur B. Corey 

HENRY HOWARD, Earl of Northampton .... Clarence Powell 

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE Louis C. Holmes 

EDMUND SPENSER A. J. Fletcher 

JOHN WHITE, Governor of Virginia . . . . . . . F. M. Regester 

MANTEO and WANCHESE, natives of Virginia . ] /j *, 'McMMan 

THE MASTER OF CEREMONIES Robert Noble 

THE JESTER Ellen Durham 

BEN JONSON Alfred Sears 

FRANCIS BACON Frank Simpson 

ELIZABETH THROCMORTON Louise Baker 

THE INN-KEEPER W. G. Briggs 

THE LORD MAYOR OF LONDON Robert Noble 

ROBIN HOOD Charles B. Garrett 

MAID MARIAN Louise Hall 

VENEZUELA, Queen of the Carribean Elizabeth Walker 

THE SPIRIT OF THE ORINOCO, a water-sprite . . . Elizabeth Hughes 

KING JAMES THE FIRST Leland S. Harris 

GEORGE VILLIERS, Duke of Buckingham Barber Towler 

THE DEAN OF WESTMINSTER ......... A. J. Fletcher 

THE BELLMAN The Reverend C. A. Ashby 

Governor and Mrs. T. W. Bickett will appear in the 
Court of Queen Elizabeth 

W 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY